Top Ancient History Ebooks

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Mythos - Stephen Fry Cover Art

Mythos

Mythos by Stephen Fry

Here are the thrills, grandeur, and unabashed fun of the Greek myths, stylishly retold by Stephen Fry. The legendary writer, actor, and comedian breathes life into ancient tales, from Pandora's box to Prometheus's fire, and transforms the adventures of Zeus and the Olympians into emotionally resonant and deeply funny stories, without losing any of their original wonder. Classical artwork inspired by the myths and learned notes from the author offer rich cultural context.

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The Complete Works of Flavius Josephus - Flavius Josephus Cover Art

The Complete Works of Flavius Josephus

The Complete Works of Flavius Josephus History of the Jewish War against the Romans, The Antiquities of the Jews, Against Apion, Discourse to the Greeks concerning Hades & Autobiography by Flavius Josephus

This meticulously edited collection has been formatted for your eReader with a functional and detailed table of contents: The War of the Jews The Antiquities of the Jews Against Apion Discourse to the Greeks concerning Hades The Life of Flavius Josephus: Autobiography Titus Flavius Josephus was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry. He initially fought against the Romans during the First Jewish–Roman War as head of Jewish forces in Galilee, until surrendering in 67 CE to Roman forces led by Vespasian after the six-week siege of Jotapata. After Vespasian became Emperor in 69 CE, he granted Josephus his freedom, at which time Josephus assumed the emperor's family name of Flavius. He fully defected to the Roman side and was granted Roman citizenship. Josephus recorded Jewish history, with special emphasis on the first century CE and the First Jewish–Roman War, including the Siege of Masada. His most important works were The Jewish War (c. 75) and Antiquities of the Jews (c. 94).

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The Immortality Key - Brian C. Muraresku Cover Art

The Immortality Key

The Immortality Key The Secret History of the Religion with No Name by Brian C. Muraresku

THE NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER As seen on The Joe Rogan Experience! A groundbreaking dive into the role psychedelics have played in the origins of Western civilization, and the real-life quest for the Holy Grail that could shake the Church to its foundations. The most influential religious historian of the 20th century, Huston Smith, once referred to it as the "best-kept secret" in history. Did the Ancient Greeks use drugs to find God? And did the earliest Christians inherit the same, secret tradition? A profound knowledge of visionary plants, herbs and fungi passed from one generation to the next, ever since the Stone Age? There is zero archaeological evidence for the original Eucharist – the sacred wine said to guarantee life after death for those who drink the blood of Jesus. The Holy Grail and its miraculous contents have never been found. In the absence of any hard data, whatever happened at the Last Supper remains an article of faith for today’s 2.5 billion Christians. In an unprecedented search for answers, The Immortality Key examines the archaic roots of the ritual that is performed every Sunday for nearly one third of the planet. Religion and science converge to paint a radical picture of Christianity’s founding event. And after centuries of debate, to solve history’s greatest puzzle. Before the birth of Jesus, the Ancient Greeks found salvation in their own sacraments. Sacred beverages were routinely consumed as part of the so-called Ancient Mysteries – elaborate rites that led initiates to the brink of death. The best and brightest from Athens and Rome flocked to the spiritual capital of Eleusis, where a holy beer unleashed heavenly visions for two thousand years. Others drank the holy wine of Dionysus to become one with the god. In the 1970s, renegade scholars claimed this beer and wine – the original sacraments of Western civilization – were spiked with mind-altering drugs. In recent years, vindication for the disgraced theory has been quietly mounting in the laboratory. The constantly advancing fields of archaeobotany and archaeochemistry have hinted at the enduring use of hallucinogenic drinks in antiquity. And with a single dose of psilocybin, the psychopharmacologists at Johns Hopkins and NYU are now turning self-proclaimed atheists into instant believers. But the smoking gun remains elusive. If these sacraments survived for thousands of years in our remote prehistory, from the Stone Age to the Ancient Greeks, did they also survive into the age of Jesus? Was the Eucharist of the earliest Christians, in fact, a psychedelic Eucharist? With an unquenchable thirst for evidence, Muraresku takes the reader on his twelve-year global hunt for proof. He tours the ruins of Greece with its government archaeologists. He gains access to the hidden collections of the Louvre to show the continuity from pagan to Christian wine. He unravels the Ancient Greek of the New Testament with the world’s most controversial priest. He spelunks into the catacombs under the streets of Rome to decipher the lost symbols of Christianity’s oldest monuments. He breaches the secret archives of the Vatican to unearth manuscripts never before translated into English. And with leads from the archaeological chemists at UPenn and MIT, he unveils the first scientific data for the ritual use of psychedelic drugs in classical antiquity. The Immortality Key reconstructs the suppressed history of women consecrating a forbidden, drugged Eucharist that was later banned by the Church Fathers. Women who were then targeted as witches during the Inquisition, when Europe’s sacred pharmacology largely disappeared. If the scientists of today have resurrected this technology, then Christianity is in crisis. Unless it returns to its roots. Featuring a Foreword by Graham Hancock, the NYT bestselling author of America Before.

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Ten Caesars - Barry Strauss Cover Art

Ten Caesars

Ten Caesars Roman Emperors from Augustus to Constantine by Barry Strauss

Bestselling classical historian Barry Strauss delivers “an exceptionally accessible history of the Roman Empire…much of Ten Caesars reads like a script for Game of Thrones” ( The Wall Street Journal ) —a summation of three and a half centuries of the Roman Empire as seen through the lives of ten of the most important emperors, from Augustus to Constantine. In this essential and “enlightening” ( The New York Times Book Review ) work, Barry Strauss tells the story of the Roman Empire from rise to reinvention, from Augustus, who founded the empire, to Constantine, who made it Christian and moved the capital east to Constantinople. During these centuries Rome gained in splendor and territory, then lost both. By the fourth century, the time of Constantine, the Roman Empire had changed so dramatically in geography, ethnicity, religion, and culture that it would have been virtually unrecognizable to Augustus. Rome’s legacy remains today in so many ways, from language, law, and architecture to the seat of the Roman Catholic Church. Strauss examines this enduring heritage through the lives of the men who shaped it: Augustus, Tiberius, Nero, Vespasian, Trajan, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius, Septimius Severus, Diocletian, and Constantine. Over the ages, they learned to maintain the family business—the government of an empire—by adapting when necessary and always persevering no matter the cost. Ten Caesars is a “captivating narrative that breathes new life into a host of transformative figures” ( Publishers Weekly ). This “superb summation of four centuries of Roman history, a masterpiece of compression, confirms Barry Strauss as the foremost academic classicist writing for the general reader today” ( The Wall Street Journal ).

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A War Like No Other - Victor Davis Hanson Cover Art

A War Like No Other

A War Like No Other How the Athenians and Spartans Fought the Peloponnesian War by Victor Davis Hanson

One of our most provocative military historians, Victor Davis Hanson has given us painstakingly researched and pathbreaking accounts of wars ranging from classical antiquity to the twenty-first century. Now he juxtaposes an ancient conflict with our most urgent modern concerns to create his most engrossing work to date, A War Like No Other. Over the course of a generation, the Hellenic city-states of Athens and Sparta fought a bloody conflict that resulted in the collapse of Athens and the end of its golden age. Thucydides wrote the standard history of the Peloponnesian War, which has given readers throughout the ages a vivid and authoritative narrative. But Hanson offers readers something new: a complete chronological account that reflects the political background of the time, the strategic thinking of the combatants, the misery of battle in multifaceted theaters, and important insight into how these events echo in the present. Hanson compellingly portrays the ways Athens and Sparta fought on land and sea, in city and countryside, and details their employment of the full scope of conventional and nonconventional tactics, from sieges to targeted assassinations, torture, and terrorism. He also assesses the crucial roles played by warriors such as Pericles and Lysander, artists, among them Aristophanes, and thinkers including Sophocles and Plato. Hanson’s perceptive analysis of events and personalities raises many thought-provoking questions: Were Athens and Sparta like America and Russia, two superpowers battling to the death? Is the Peloponnesian War echoed in the endless, frustrating conflicts of Vietnam, Northern Ireland, and the current Middle East? Or was it more like America’s own Civil War, a brutal rift that rent the fabric of a glorious society, or even this century’s “red state—blue state” schism between liberals and conservatives, a cultural war that manifestly controls military policies? Hanson daringly brings the facts to life and unearths the often surprising ways in which the past informs the present. Brilliantly researched, dynamically written, A War Like No Other is like no other history of this important war.

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Killing Jesus - Bill O'Reilly & Martin Dugard Cover Art

Killing Jesus

Killing Jesus A History by Bill O'Reilly & Martin Dugard

Millions of readers have thrilled to bestselling authors Bill O'Reilly and historian Martin Dugard's Killing Kennedy and Killing Lincoln , page-turning works of nonfiction that have changed the way we read history. Now the iconic anchor of The O'Reilly Factor details the events leading up to the murder of the most influential man in history: Jesus of Nazareth. Nearly two thousand years after this beloved and controversial young revolutionary was brutally killed by Roman soldiers, more than 2.2 billion human beings attempt to follow his teachings and believe he is God. Killing Jesus will take readers inside Jesus's life, recounting the seismic political and historical events that made his death inevitable - and changed the world forever.

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Ecclelsiastical History - Eusebius of Caesarea Cover Art

Ecclelsiastical History

Ecclelsiastical History by Eusebius of Caesarea

Eusebius' account of the early church and the conversion of Constantine.

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Soldier of Rome: The Legionary - James Mace Cover Art

Soldier of Rome: The Legionary

Soldier of Rome: The Legionary by James Mace

In the year 9 A.D. three Roman legions under Quintilius Varus are betrayed by the Germanic war chief, Arminius, and destroyed in the forest known as Teutoburger Wald. Six years later, Rome is ready to unleash her vengeance. Emperor Tiberius sends his adopted son, Germanicus Caesar, across the Rhine with an army of forty-thousand imperial soldiers. They come not on a mission of conquest, but of annihilation. Within the ranks is a young legionary named Artorius, for whom the war offers a chance to avenge his slain brother. Deep within the forests of Germania, Arminius and his allies prepare to face the legions. Defeating the Romans will require all of his cunning, tactical savvy, and plenty of well-placed brute force. The Roman Empire holds its breath as Germanicus and Arminius face each other in the most savage conflict the world has seen in a generation; a conflict that will end in a holocaust of fire and blood.

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Soldier of Rome: Journey to Judea - James Mace Cover Art

Soldier of Rome: Journey to Judea

Soldier of Rome: Journey to Judea by James Mace

**Gods and Men** The year is 31 A.D. It is five years into the Judean governorship of Pontius Pilate and the province ever stands on the edge of a knife. The Jewish religious leaders, the Sanhedrin, use their patronage with the Emperor to vent the slightest grievance, and the people themselves burn with a hatred for Rome. Pilate's only military forces are Samaritan auxiliaries, little more than an undisciplined mob that abuse and torment the populace. The Emperor Tiberius finally relents and assigns to Judea a single cohort of legionaries to restore order. Pilate tasks his old friend, Centurion Artorius, to command the First Italic Cohort. Though sad to leave the Rhine and the Twentieth Legion after sixteen years, Artorius relishes the chance for adventure in the East. With him will be some old friends, Magnus, Praxus, Valens, and Justus Longinus. In the scorching desert they will encounter bandits, a mad king, his evil seductress stepdaughter, numerous messianic prophets, and unreliable allies, all underscored by the beginnings of a zealot rebellion.

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Persian Fire - Tom Holland Cover Art

Persian Fire

Persian Fire by Tom Holland

A "fresh...thrilling" ( The Guardian ) account of the Graeco-Persian Wars. In the fifth century B.C., a global superpower was determined to bring truth and order to what it regarded as two terrorist states. The superpower was Persia, incomparably rich in ambition, gold, and men. The terrorist states were Athens and Sparta, eccentric cities in a poor and mountainous backwater: Greece. The story of how their citizens took on the Great King of Persia, and thereby saved not only themselves but Western civilization as well, is as heart-stopping and fateful as any episode in history. Tom Holland’s brilliant study of these critical Persian Wars skillfully examines a conflict of critical importance to both ancient and modern history.

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Hannibal - Ernle Bradford Cover Art

Hannibal

Hannibal by Ernle Bradford

The life of the great military commander of ancient Carthage from the bestselling author of Thermopylae and Gibraltar.   Born in Carthage in 247 BC, Hannibal Barca is considered one of the greatest military commanders of all time. Following the example set by his father, Hamilcar, he dedicated his life to the defeat of Rome. At the outbreak of the Second Punic War, Hannibal famously led an army across the Pyrenees and the Alps to victory against the Romans at the Battle of Trebia. In the years that followed, Hannibal led the Carthaginian war on Rome through some of the most brutal and costly battles in recorded history.   In this richly detailed biography, Ernle Bradford tells the story of a great leader whose military strategies have been studied and copied by commanders throughout history, from his own Roman enemies to Napoleon Bonaparte.  

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The Assassination of Julius Caesar - Michael Parenti Cover Art

The Assassination of Julius Caesar

The Assassination of Julius Caesar A People's History of Ancient Rome by Michael Parenti

“A provocative history” of intrigue and class struggle in Ancient Rome—“an important alternative to the usual views of Caesar and the Roman Empire” ( Publishers Weekly ).   Most historians, both ancient and modern, have viewed the Late Republic of Rome through the eyes of its rich nobility—the 1 percent of the population who controlled 99 percent of the empire’s wealth. In  The Assassination of Julius Caesar , Michael Parenti recounts this period, spanning the years 100 to 33 BC, from the perspective of the Roman people. In doing so, he presents a provocative, trenchantly researched narrative of popular resistance against a powerful elite.   As Parenti carefully weighs the evidence concerning the murder of Caesar, he adds essential context to the crime with fascinating details about Roman society as a whole. In these pages, we find reflections on the democratic struggle waged by Roman commoners, religious augury as an instrument of social control, the patriarchal oppression of women, and the political use of homophobic attacks. The Assassination of Julius Caesar offers a whole new perspective on an era thought to be well-known.   “A highly accessible and entertaining addition to history.” — Book Marks

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Soldier of Rome: The Sacrovir Revolt - James Mace Cover Art

Soldier of Rome: The Sacrovir Revolt

Soldier of Rome: The Sacrovir Revolt by James Mace

It has been three years since the wars against Arminius and the Cherusci. Gaius Silius, Legate of the Twentieth Legion, is concerned that the barbarians-though shattered by the war-may be stirring once again. He also seeks to confirm the rumors regarding Arminius' death. What Silius does not realize is that there is a new threat to the Empire, but it does not come from beyond the frontier; it is coming from within, where a disenchanted nobleman looks to sow the seeds of rebellion in Gaul. Legionary Artorius has greatly matured during his five years in the legions. He has become stronger in mind; his body growing even more powerful. Like the rest of the Legion, he is unaware of the shadow growing well within the Empire's borders, where a disaffected nobleman seeks to betray the Emperor Tiberius. A shadow looms; one that looks to envelope the province of Gaul as well as the Rhine legions. The year is A.D. 20.

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Soldier of Rome: The Last Campaign - James Mace Cover Art

Soldier of Rome: The Last Campaign

Soldier of Rome: The Last Campaign by James Mace

**The Final Conquest** Following the assassination of Emperor Gaius Caligula in 41 A.D., his uncle, Claudius, assumed the imperial throne. After establishing his legitimacy and stabilizing his position with the Roman Senate and people, he looks to legitimize himself militarily. His eyes turn towards Britannia; the elusive isle that even Julius Caesar failed to conquer. Far from being unknown to the rest of the world, various Britannic peoples have maintained trade relations with the continent, and a few of the tribal kingdoms have even formed alliances with Rome that extend back decades. Constant warfare, however, has left the isle in a state of perpetual instability. When several allies call upon Rome for assistance in their volatile struggles, Claudius seizes the opportunity to finish what the Divine Julius started almost a hundred years before. In Ostia, Centurion Artorius spends his days as a police commissioner, while only holding an honorary posting with the legions. Soon after Claudius' ascension, however, he is recalled to active service with his former legion, the Twentieth Valeria, where his peers proclaim him as the new master centurion. It has been generations since the empire expanded its borders via conquest, and Artorius readies his men to spearhead a massive invasion force in what he knows will be his last campaign.

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Soldier of Rome: The Centurion - James Mace Cover Art

Soldier of Rome: The Centurion

Soldier of Rome: The Centurion by James Mace

Betrayal and Devastation In the year 28 A.D. the people of Frisia, a previously loyal province, were suffering under the oppression of the Roman magistrate, a former Centurion named Olennius. So blinded by greed had he become, that he taxed the populous well beyond their means to produce. Now impoverished and risking starvation, the Frisians did the unspeakable and sought open rebellion as their only means of survival. The Emperor Tiberius, now living in self-imposed isolation on the isle of Capri, is deeply troubled upon hearing that such a staunchly loyal province would seek to throw off the rule of Rome. Nevertheless, he orders the mobilization of the Army of the Rhine to suppress the Frisians back into docile submission, never knowing the real reason as to the origin of the rebellion. As the Twentieth Legion marches north into Frisia on its first major campaign in eight years, Centurion Artorius finds himself facing his first major battle since taking over his Century. Years of relative peace, combined with the mass discharges of many of his veteran soldiers, have left the ranks filled with a number of young and inexperienced legionaries. For over a third of his men this will be their first action. The Frisians, in their desperation, know that they face death either by starvation in peace or slaughter on the battlefield. For Artorius and his legionaries the crucible of war will end in heartbreak; for only after the devastation of battle does the truth arise.

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Soldier of Rome: Heir to Rebellion - James Mace Cover Art

Soldier of Rome: Heir to Rebellion

Soldier of Rome: Heir to Rebellion by James Mace

A year has passed since the end of the Gallic rebellion of Sacrovir and Florus. Retribution has been exacted and the province is at peace once more. And yet there are some who escaped Rome's justice. They are led by a man whose heart burns with hate; an heir to rebellion. Knowing that there can be no victory against the legions; his vengeance can only be wrought through terror and murder. The Gallic city of Lugdunum will be the first to taste his wrath.The city of Lugdunum flourishes; the Twentieth Legion's Third Cohort having been stationed within the city since the end of the Sacrovir Revolt. For Centurion Proculus and his legionaries their comfortable assignment will soon come unraveled as a series of grisly murders looks to upset the order of the city. Sergeant Artorius inadvertently finds himself at the center of the search to find these mysterious killers before they undermine the city's faith in the protection of the legions; a search that will lead him on a journey into the darkest corners of what lurks in a broken man's wicked soul.

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Soldier of Rome: Rebellion in Judea - James Mace Cover Art

Soldier of Rome: Rebellion in Judea

Soldier of Rome: Rebellion in Judea by James Mace

In the year 66 A.D. the Roman province of Judea exploded in rebellion. Far from being a revolution of unified peoples, the various Jewish factions of Sadducees, Zealots, Sicarii, and Edomites are in a state of civil war; as anxious to spill the blood of each other as they are to fight the Romans. The Judeans find hope when the Romans commit a serious tactical blunder and allow their forces to be ambushed and nearly destroyed in the mountain pass of Beth Horon. Following the disaster, Emperor Nero recalls to active service Flavius Vespasian, the legendary general who had been instrumental in the conquest of Britannia twenty-three years before. In the northern region of Galilee, a young Judean commander named Josephus ben Matthias readies his forces to face the coming onslaught. A social and political moderate, he fears the extremely violent Zealot fanatics, who threaten to overthrow the newly-established government in Jerusalem, as much as he does the Romans. Soon Vespasian, a tactical and strategic genius who had never been defeated in battle, unleashes his huge army upon Galilee. His orders are to crush the rebellion and exact the harshest of punishments upon those who would violate the Peace of Rome. Lacking the manpower and resources to face the legions in open battle, Josephus knows he will need plenty of cunning, ingenuity, and, perhaps, even the intervention of God Himself, lest the once proud Kingdoms of Judah and Israel should become a kingdom of the damned.

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A History of the Ancient Near East, ca. 3000-323 BC - Marc Van De Mieroop Cover Art

A History of the Ancient Near East, ca. 3000-323 BC

A History of the Ancient Near East, ca. 3000-323 BC by Marc Van De Mieroop

Incorporating the latest scholarly research, the third edition of A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000–323 BC presents a comprehensive overview of the multicultural civilizations of the ancient Near East. Integrates the most up-to-date research, and includes a richer selection of supplementary materials Addresses the wide variety of political, social, and cultural developments in the ancient Near East Updated features include new “Key Debate” boxes at the end of each chapter to engage students with various perspectives on a range of critical issues; a comprehensive timeline of events; and 46 new illustrations, including 12 color photos Features a new chapter addressing governance and continuity in the region during the Persian Empire Offers in-depth, accessible discussions of key texts and sources, including the Bible and the Epic of Gilgamesh

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Soldier of Rome: Vespasian's Fury - James Mace Cover Art

Soldier of Rome: Vespasian's Fury

Soldier of Rome: Vespasian's Fury by James Mace

**Hell Unleashed** It is July of 67 A.D. The brutal, forty-seven day siege of the rebel stronghold of Jotapata, in Galilee, has ended. The Roman armies of Vespasian destroyed the city and captured the leader of the resistance, Josephus ben Matthias. While being interrogated by the Roman commanding general, Josephus makes a bold prediction; Nero's reign grows short and, in time, Vespasian himself will rise to become emperor. Intrigued, while also viewing the Jewish general as a great source of intelligence, Vespasian spares his life. He then unleashes a hell storm of fury upon the rest of Galilee and into Judea itself. In Jerusalem, the fall of Jotapata is a tragic loss, with Josephus presumed dead and venerated as a martyr. The moderate government under Hanan ben Hanan is greatly weakened as a result of the defeat, with the various extremists seeking to install their own leaders as head of the Jewish State. The rival zealot factions soon become embroiled in a bitter and extremely violent civil war, oblivious or uncaring about the common enemy that is laying waste to the land. Three thousand miles away, Rome is in a constant state of political turmoil. Vespasian attempts to stay above the fray, intent on finishing off the rebellious zealots, yet with Josephus' prophetic words ever-echoing in his mind.  

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Soldier of Rome: The Fall of Jerusalem - James Mace Cover Art

Soldier of Rome: The Fall of Jerusalem

Soldier of Rome: The Fall of Jerusalem by James Mace

The Flavians have arisen. Following the death of Emperor Nero, four men battled to become 'Caesar' in what was now called The Year of the Four Emperors. Flavius Vespasian, the fearsome general previously in command of the furious onslaught against the rebellion in Judea, emerged victorious. As emperor, he must return to Rome, leaving his son, Titus, to destroy the rebels and capture Jerusalem. The Judean capital finds itself under siege, not just from the imperial army but from its supposed protectors. Since the overthrow of the post-Roman government, a bitter and extremely violent struggle raged for over a year, as various zealot factions battle for control of the Jewish state. John of Giscala, who murdered the moderate, Hanan ben Hanan, rules the city through brutality and terror. His chief rival, a former Sicarii ally named Simon bar Giora, is a man of even greater ferocity who recognises neither John's government nor that of Rome. The factions descend into madness, bringing untold misery to the people of Jerusalem. As Titus advances towards the Jewish Holy City with his massive army of seventy-thousand imperial soldiers, the warring Judean factions must decide whether to stand together against the coming onslaught or die in a bloodbath of mutual hatred.

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Soldier of Rome: Reign of the Tyrants - James Mace Cover Art

Soldier of Rome: Reign of the Tyrants

Soldier of Rome: Reign of the Tyrants by James Mace

The year is 68 A.D., and the vast Roman Empire is in chaos. Provinces are in rebellion, while Emperor Nero struggles to maintain the remnants of his political power, as well as his last shreds of sanity. In the province of Hispania, the governor, Servius Sulpicius Galba, marches on Rome. In his despair, Nero commits suicide. Galba, the first Emperor of Rome from outside the Julio-Claudian Dynasty, is at first viewed as a liberator, yet he soon proves to be a merciless despot, alienating even those closest to him. A member of the imperial court, and former favorite of Nero, Marcus Salvius Otho seeks to become the childless Galba's successor. When he is snubbed for another of the new emperor's favorites, Otho decides to take the mantle of Caesar by force. At the same time, the governor of Germania, Aulus Vitellius, is proclaimed emperor by his legions, leading Rome into civil war. In the east, the empire's fiercest general, Flavius Vespasian, has been embroiled in suppressing the rebellion in Judea over the last two years. With nearly one third of the entire Roman Army under his command, he wields formidable power. At first attempting to stay above the fray, and with the empire fracturing into various alliances, Rome's most loyal soldier may soon be compelled to put an end to the Reign of the Tyrants.

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Soldier of Rome: Rise of the Flavians - James Mace Cover Art

Soldier of Rome: Rise of the Flavians

Soldier of Rome: Rise of the Flavians by James Mace

It is April of 69 A.D., and Rome's first civil war in a hundred years has ended. Emperor Otho, who violently overthrew the tyrannical Galba just three months before, is dead. The triumphant armies of the Rhine coerce the senate into ratifying their governor, Aulus Vitellius, as emperor. While there is an uneasy hope that peace has returned to Rome, Vitellius' cronyism and utter incompetence soon alienates most of Rome's patricians, along with many of the provinces. After just two months, the imperial armies in the east, along with much of the populace, have had enough of corrupt despots. The legions in Egypt, Syria, and Judea rebel, declaring the venerable general, Flavius Vespasian, emperor. Support for his rule quickly spreads, as soldier and citizen alike demand that he put an end to the reign of the tyrants. The Roman Empire is now divided, with Italia and the western provinces still loyal to Vitellius, while every province east of Pannonia has declared its allegiance to Vespasian. Brothers Gaius and Lucius Artorius unwittingly find themselves on opposing sides of this hateful conflict. Fathers will make war on their sons and brother will slay brother in the blood-soaked cauldron of civil war.

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Life of Constantine - Eusebius of Caesarea Cover Art

Life of Constantine

Life of Constantine by Eusebius of Caesarea

A biography of the life of the first Christian Roman Emperor.

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SPQR: A History of Ancient Rome - Mary Beard Cover Art

SPQR: A History of Ancient Rome

SPQR: A History of Ancient Rome by Mary Beard

New York Times Bestseller A New York Times Notable Book Named one of the Best Books of the Year by the Wall Street Journal, the Economist, Foreign Affairs, and Kirkus Reviews Finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award (Nonfiction) Shortlisted for the Cundill Prize in Historical Literature Finalist for the Los Angeles Times Book Prize (History) A San Francisco Chronicle Holiday Gift Guide Selection A New York Times Book Review Editors’ Choice Selection A sweeping, "magisterial" history of the Roman Empire from one of our foremost classicists shows why Rome remains "relevant to people many centuries later" (Atlantic). In SPQR, an instant classic, Mary Beard narrates the history of Rome "with passion and without technical jargon" and demonstrates how "a slightly shabby Iron Age village" rose to become the "undisputed hegemon of the Mediterranean" (Wall Street Journal). Hailed by critics as animating "the grand sweep and the intimate details that bring the distant past vividly to life" (Economist) in a way that makes "your hair stand on end" (Christian Science Monitor) and spanning nearly a thousand years of history, this "highly informative, highly readable" (Dallas Morning News) work examines not just how we think of ancient Rome but challenges the comfortable historical perspectives that have existed for centuries. With its nuanced attention to class, democratic struggles, and the lives of entire groups of people omitted from the historical narrative for centuries, SPQR will to shape our view of Roman history for decades to come.

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The War That Made the Roman Empire - Barry Strauss Cover Art

The War That Made the Roman Empire

The War That Made the Roman Empire Antony, Cleopatra, and Octavian at Actium by Barry Strauss

A “splendid” ( The Wall Street Journal ) account of one of history’s most important and yet little-known wars, the campaign culminating in the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, whose outcome determined the future of the Roman Empire. Following Caesar’s assassination and Mark Antony’s defeat of the conspirators who killed Caesar, two powerful men remained in Rome—Antony and Caesar’s chosen heir, young Octavian, the future Augustus. When Antony fell in love with the most powerful woman in the world, Egypt’s ruler Cleopatra, and thwarted Octavian’s ambition to rule the empire, another civil war broke out. In 31 BC one of the largest naval battles in the ancient world took place—more than 600 ships, almost 200,000 men, and one woman—the Battle of Actium. Octavian prevailed over Antony and Cleopatra, who subsequently killed themselves. The Battle of Actium had great consequences for the empire. Had Antony and Cleopatra won, the empire’s capital might have moved from Rome to Alexandria, Cleopatra’s capital, and Latin might have become the empire’s second language after Greek, which was spoken throughout the eastern Mediterranean, including Egypt. In this “superbly recounted” ( The National Review ) history, Barry Strauss, ancient history authority, describes this consequential battle with the drama and expertise that it deserves. The War That Made the Roman Empire is essential history that features three of the greatest figures of the ancient world.

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Moses and Monotheism - Sigmund Freud Cover Art

Moses and Monotheism

Moses and Monotheism by Sigmund Freud

The book consists of three essays and is an extension of Freud’s work on psychoanalytic theory as a means of generating hypotheses about historical events. Freud hypothesizes that Moses was not Hebrew, but actually born into Ancient Egyptian nobility and was probably a follower of Akhenaten, an ancient Egyptian monotheist. Freud contradicts the biblical story of Moses with his own retelling of events, claiming that Moses only led his close followers into freedom during an unstable period in Egyptian history after Akhenaten (ca. 1350 BCE) and that they subsequently killed Moses in rebellion and later combined with another monotheistic tribe in Midian based on a volcanic God, Jahweh. Freud explains that years after the murder of Moses, the rebels regretted their action, thus forming the concept of the Messiah as a hope for the return of Moses as the Saviour of the Israelites. Freud said that the guilt from the murder of Moses is inherited through the generations; this guilt then drives the Jews to religion to make them feel better.

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The First Ghosts - Irving Finkel Cover Art

The First Ghosts

The First Ghosts A rich history of ancient ghosts and ghost stories from the British Museum curator by Irving Finkel

'It's enthralling stuff, mixing the scholarly with the accessible and placing storytelling right at the heart of the human experience.' - History Revealed 'A fascinating journey' - Yorkshire Post 'The book is a delight to read: each chapter is as academically astute as you would expect from this author, but delivered with a light touch and entertaining writing-style that sweeps the reader through the pages.' - Archaeology Worldwide In The First Ghosts , he has found the perfect medium for bringing the ancient Mesopotamians back from the dead... Despite the morbid theme and remote cultural milieu, this is not a sombre book. One does not have to share Finkel's empathy for this subjects, both ghostly and Mesopotamian, to be entertained and enlightened by The First Ghosts . - TLS There are few things more in common across cultures than the belief in ghosts. Ghosts inhabit something of the very essence of what it is to be human. Whether we personally 'believe' or not, we are all aware of ghosts and the rich mythologies and rituals surrounding them. They have inspired, fascinated and frightened us for centuries - yet most of us are only familiar with the vengeful apparitions of Shakespeare, or the ghastly spectres haunting the pages of 19th century gothic literature. But their origins are much, much older... The First Ghosts: Most Ancient of Legacies takes us back to the very beginning. A world-renowned authority on cuneiform, the form of writing on clay tablets which dates back to 3400BC, Irving Finkel has embarked upon an ancient ghost hunt, scouring these tablets to unlock the secrets of the Sumerians, Babylonians and Assyrians to breathe new life into the first ghost stories ever written. In The First Ghosts , he uncovers an extraordinarily rich seam of ancient spirit wisdom which has remained hidden for nearly 4000 years, covering practical details of how to live with ghosts, how to get rid of them and bring them back, and how to avoid becoming one, as well as exploring more philosophical questions: what are ghosts, why does the idea of them remain so powerful despite the lack of concrete evidence, and what do they tell us about being human?

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The Twelve Caesars - Suetonius Cover Art

The Twelve Caesars

The Twelve Caesars by Suetonius

The Twelve Caesars - Suetonius . A translation into English by A. S. Kline . Published in entirety with in-depth name index. In the Twelve Caesars ( De Vita Caesarum ) Suetonius provides us with biographies of Julius Caesar and the eleven Roman Emperors who followed him. The work, probably written around 121AD in the reign of Hadrian, therefore covers the crucial and highly eventful period of Roman history from the end of the Republic to the reign of Domitian. Suetonius delved into the Imperial archives to research eyewitness accounts, obtain factual information, and compile related material to produce his summary, as well as gathering anecdotal and other evidence from writers and historians of the period. The work is dramatic, and packed with incident. It provides valuable information on the heritage, personal habits, physical appearance, lives and political careers of the protagonists, and mentions details that other sources do not. Suetonius is a major source of information on the life of Caligula, his uncle Claudius, and the heritage of Vespasian (the relevant sections of the Annals by Tacitus his contemporary being lost). Though often questioned regarding its ultimate reliability as history, the Twelve Caesars provides an unforgettable portrait of Rome under the early Emperors, and of the Emperors themselves This and other texts available from Poetry in Translation (www.poetryintranslation.com) .

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The Emperor's Handbook - Marcus Aurelius Cover Art

The Emperor's Handbook

The Emperor's Handbook by Marcus Aurelius

Written in Greek, without any intention of publication, by the only Roman emperor who was also a philosopher, the THE EMPEROR’S HANDBOOK (or MEDITATIONS) of Marcus Aurelius (AD 121-180) offer a remarkable series of challenging spiritual reflections and exercises developed as the emperor struggled to understand himself and make sense of the universe.  Ranging from doubt and despair to conviction and exaltation, they cover such diverse topics as the nature of moral virtue, human rationality, divine providence, and Marcus’ own emotions.

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Goddesses - Joseph Campbell Cover Art

Goddesses

Goddesses Mysteries of the Feminine Divine by Joseph Campbell

Explore the mysteries of the feminine divine Joseph Campbell brought mythology to a mass audience. His bestselling books, including The Power of Myth and The Hero with a Thousand Faces, are the rare blockbusters that are also scholarly classics. While Campbell’s work reached wide and deep as he covered the world’s great mythological traditions, he never wrote a book on goddesses in world mythology. He did, however, have much to say on the subject. Between 1972 and 1986 he gave over twenty lectures and workshops on goddesses, exploring the figures, functions, symbols, and themes of the feminine divine, following them through their transformations across cultures and epochs. In this provocative volume, editor Safron Rossi—a goddess studies scholar, professor of mythology, and curator of collections at Opus Archives, which holds the Joseph Campbell archival manuscript collection and personal library—collects these lectures for the first time. In them, Campbell traces the evolution of the feminine divine from one Great Goddess to many, from Neolithic Old Europe to the Renaissance. He sheds new light on classical motifs and reveals how the feminine divine symbolizes the archetypal energies of transformation, initiation, and inspiration.

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The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English (7th Edition) - Dr Geza Vermes Cover Art

The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English (7th Edition)

The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English (7th Edition) by Dr Geza Vermes

'Probably the most important archaeological find in history ... Vermes' translations are a standard in the field' Los Angeles Times The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in the Judaean desert between 1947 and 1956 was one of the greatest finds of all time. These extraordinary manuscripts appear to have been hidden in the caves at Qumran by the Essenes, a Jewish sect in existence before and during the time of Jesus. Written in Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek, the scrolls have transformed our understanding of the Hebrew Bible, early Judaism and the origins of Christianity. This acclaimed translation by Geza Vermes has established itself as the classic version of these texts. Translated and edited with an Introduction and Notes by Geza Vermes

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The Story of the Jews - Simon Schama Cover Art

The Story of the Jews

The Story of the Jews Finding the Words 1000 BC-1492 AD by Simon Schama

In this magnificently illustrated cultural history—the tie-in to the pbs and bbc series The Story of the Jews—simon schama details the story of the jewish people, tracing their experience across three millennia, from their beginnings as an ancient tribal people to the opening of the new world in 1492 It is a story like no other: an epic of endurance in the face of destruction, of creativity in the face of oppression, joy amidst grief, the affirmation of life despite the steepest of odds. It spans the millennia and the continents—from India to Andalusia and from the bazaars of Cairo to the streets of Oxford. It takes you to unimagined places: to a Jewish kingdom in the mountains of southern Arabia; a Syrian synagogue glowing with radiant wall paintings; the palm groves of the Jewish dead in the Roman catacombs. And its voices ring loud and clear, from the severities and ecstasies of the Bible writers to the love poems of wine bibbers in a garden in Muslim Spain. In The Story of the Jews, the Talmud burns in the streets of Paris, massed gibbets hang over the streets of medieval London, a Majorcan illuminator redraws the world; candles are lit, chants are sung, mules are packed, ships loaded with gems and spices founder at sea. And a great story unfolds. Not—as often imagined—of a culture apart, but of a Jewish world immersed in and imprinted by the peoples among whom they have dwelled, from the Egyptians to the Greeks, from the Arabs to the Christians. Which makes the story of the Jews everyone's story, too.

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The Riddle of the Labyrinth - Margalit Fox Cover Art

The Riddle of the Labyrinth

The Riddle of the Labyrinth The Quest to Crack an Ancient Code by Margalit Fox

In the tradition of Simon Winchester and Dava Sobel, The Riddle of the Labyrinth: The Quest to Crack an Ancient Code tells one of the most intriguing stories in the history of language, masterfully blending history, linguistics, and cryptology with an elegantly wrought narrative.   When famed archaeologist Arthur Evans unearthed the ruins of a sophisticated Bronze Age civilization that flowered on Crete 1,000 years before Greece’s Classical Age, he discovered a cache of ancient tablets, Europe’s earliest written records. For half a century, the meaning of the inscriptions, and even the language in which they were written, would remain a mystery.                                                Award-winning New York Times journalist Margalit Fox's riveting real-life intellectual detective story travels from the Bronze Age Aegean—the era of Odysseus, Agamemnon, and Helen—to the turn of the 20th century and the work of charismatic English archeologist Arthur Evans, to the colorful personal stories of the decipherers. These include Michael Ventris, the brilliant amateur who deciphered the script but met with a sudden, mysterious death that may have been a direct consequence of the deipherment; and Alice Kober, the unsung heroine of the story whose painstaking work allowed Ventris to crack the code.

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Ghost on the Throne - James Romm Cover Art

Ghost on the Throne

Ghost on the Throne The Death of Alexander the Great and the Bloody Fight for His Empire by James Romm

Alexander the Great, perhaps the most commanding leader in history, united his empire and his army by the titanic force of his will. His death at the age of thirty-two spelled the end of that unity. The story of Alexander’s conquest of the Persian empire is known to many readers, but the dramatic and consequential saga of the empire’s collapse remains virtually untold. It is a tale of loss that begins with the greatest loss of all, the death of the Macedonian king who had held the empire together. With his demise, it was as if the sun had disappeared from the solar system, as if planets and moons began to spin crazily in new directions, crashing into one another with unimaginable force. Alexander bequeathed his power, legend has it, “to the strongest,” leaving behind a mentally damaged half brother and a posthumously born son as his only heirs. In a strange compromise, both figures—Philip III and Alexander IV—were elevated to the kingship, quickly becoming prizes, pawns, fought over by a half-dozen Macedonian generals. Each successor could confer legitimacy on whichever general controlled him. At the book’s center is the monarch’s most vigorous defender; Alexander’s former Greek secretary, now transformed into a general himself. He was a man both fascinating and entertaining, a man full of tricks and connivances, like the enthroned ghost of Alexander that gives the book its title, and becomes the determining factor in the precarious fortunes of the royal family. James Romm, brilliant classicist and storyteller, tells the galvanizing saga of the men who followed Alexander and found themselves incapable of preserving his empire. The result was the undoing of a world, formerly united in a single empire, now ripped apart into a nightmare of warring nation-states struggling for domination, the template of our own times.

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Alexander the Great - Anthony Everitt Cover Art

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great His Life and His Mysterious Death by Anthony Everitt

What can we learn from the stunning rise and mysterious death of the ancient world’s greatest conqueror? An acclaimed biographer reconstructs the life of Alexander the Great in this magisterial revisionist portrait. “[An] infectious sense of narrative momentum . . . Its energy is unflagging, including the verve with which it tackles that teased final mystery about the specific cause of Alexander’s death.”— The Christian Science Monitor More than two millennia have passed since Alexander the Great built an empire that stretched to every corner of the ancient world, from the backwater kingdom of Macedonia to the Hellenic world, Persia, and ultimately to India—all before his untimely death at age thirty-three. Alexander believed that his empire would stop only when he reached the Pacific Ocean. But stories of both real and legendary events from his life have kept him evergreen in our imaginations with a legacy that has meant something different to every era: in the Middle Ages he became an exemplar of knightly chivalry, he was a star of Renaissance paintings, and by the early twentieth century he’d even come to resemble an English gentleman. But who was he in his own time? In Alexander the Great , Anthony Everitt judges Alexander’s life against the criteria of his own age and considers all his contradictions. We meet the Macedonian prince who was naturally inquisitive and fascinated by science and exploration, as well as the man who enjoyed the arts and used Homer’s great epic the Iliad as a bible. As his empire grew, Alexander exhibited respect for the traditions of his new subjects and careful judgment in administering rule over his vast territory. But his career also had a dark side. An inveterate conqueror who in his short life built the largest empire up to that point in history, Alexander glorified war and was known to commit acts of remarkable cruelty. As debate continues about the meaning of his life, Alexander's death remains a  mystery. Did he die of natural causes—felled by a fever—or did his marshals, angered by his tyrannical behavior, kill him? An explanation of his death can lie only in what we know of his life, and Everitt ventures to solve that puzzle, offering an ending to Alexander’s story that has eluded so many for so long.

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The Age of Caesar: Five Roman Lives - Plutarch, James Romm & Pamela Mensch Cover Art

The Age of Caesar: Five Roman Lives

The Age of Caesar: Five Roman Lives by Plutarch, James Romm & Pamela Mensch

“Plutarch regularly shows that great leaders transcend their own purely material interests and petty, personal vanities. Noble ideals actually do matter, in government as in life.” —Michael Dirda, Washington Post Pompey, Caesar, Cicero, Brutus, Antony: the names still resonate across thousands of years. Major figures in the civil wars that brutally ended the Roman republic, their lives pose a question that haunts us still: how to safeguard a republic from the flaws of its leaders. This reader’s edition of Plutarch delivers a fresh translation of notable clarity, explanatory notes, and ample historical context in the Preface and Introduction.

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The Maxims of Ptah-Hotep - Ptahhotep Cover Art

The Maxims of Ptah-Hotep

The Maxims of Ptah-Hotep by Ptahhotep

Ptahhotep , sometimes known as Ptahhotpe or Ptah-Hotep , was an ancient Egyptian official during the late 25th century BC and early 24th century BC. Ptahhotep was the city administrator and vizier (first minister) during the reign of Djedkare Isesi in the 5th Dynasty. He is credited with authoring The Instruction of Ptahhotep , an early piece of Egyptian "wisdom literature" meant to instruct young men in appropriate behavior.  There are authors who date the Maxims of Ptahhotep much earlier than the 25th century. For instance, Pulitzer Prize winning historian Will Durant dates these writings as early as 2880 BCE within The Story of Civilization: Our Oriental History . Durant claims that Ptahhotep could be considered the very first philosopher in virtue of having the earliest and surviving fragments of moral philosophy (i.e., "The Maxims of Ptah-Hotep"). Ptahhotep's grandson, Ptahhotep Tshefi, is traditionally credited with being the author of the collection of wise sayings known as The Maxims of Ptahhotep , whose opening lines attribute authorship to the vizier Ptahhotep: Instruction of the Mayor of the city, the Vizier Ptahhotep, under the Majesty of King Isesi . They take the form of advice and instructions from a father to his son and are said to have been assembled during the late Old Kingdom. However, their oldest surviving copies are written in Middle Egyptian dating to the late First Intermediate Period of the Middle Kingdom. The Maxims are conformist precepts extolling such civil virtues as truthfulness, self-control and kindness towards one's fellow beings. Some of the maxims refer to one's behaviour when in the presence of the great, how to choose the right master and how to serve him. Others teach the correct way to lead through openness and kindness.

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The Philosopher and the Druids - Philip Freeman Cover Art

The Philosopher and the Druids

The Philosopher and the Druids A Journey Among the Ancient Celts by Philip Freeman

Early in the first century B. C. a Greek philosopher named Posidonius began an ambitious and dangerous journey into the little-known lands of the Celts. A man of great intellectual curiosity and considerable daring, Posidonius traveled from his home on the island of Rhodes to Rome, the capital of the expanding empire that had begun to dominate the Mediterranean. From there Posidonius planned to investigate for himself the mysterious Celts, reputed to be cannibals and savages. His journey would be one of the great adventures of the ancient world. Posidonius journeyed deep into the heart of the Celtic lands in Gaul. There he discovered that the Celts were not barbarians but a sophisticated people who studied the stars, composed beautiful poetry, and venerated a priestly caste known as the Druids. Celtic warriors painted their bodies, wore pants, and decapitated their foes. Posidonius was amazed at the Celtic women, who enjoyed greater freedoms than the women of Rome, and was astonished to discover that women could even become Druids. Posidonius returned home and wrote a book about his travels among the Celts, which became one of the most popular books of ancient times. His work influenced Julius Caesar, who would eventually conquer the people of Gaul and bring the Celts into the Roman Empire, ending forever their ancient way of life. Thanks to Posidonius, who could not have known that he was recording a way of life soon to disappear, we have an objective, eyewitness account of the lives and customs of the ancient Celts.

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Byzantium - Judith Herrin Cover Art

Byzantium

Byzantium The Surprising Life of a Medieval Empire by Judith Herrin

Byzantium. The name evokes grandeur and exoticism—gold, cunning, and complexity. In this unique book, Judith Herrin unveils the riches of a quite different civilization. Avoiding a standard chronological account of the Byzantine Empire's millennium—long history, she identifies the fundamental questions about Byzantium—what it was, and what special significance it holds for us today. Bringing the latest scholarship to a general audience in accessible prose, Herrin focuses each short chapter around a representative theme, event, monument, or historical figure, and examines it within the full sweep of Byzantine history—from the foundation of Constantinople, the magnificent capital city built by Constantine the Great, to its capture by the Ottoman Turks. She argues that Byzantium's crucial role as the eastern defender of Christendom against Muslim expansion during the early Middle Ages made Europe—and the modern Western world—possible. Herrin captivates us with her discussions of all facets of Byzantine culture and society. She walks us through the complex ceremonies of the imperial court. She describes the transcendent beauty and power of the church of Hagia Sophia, as well as chariot races, monastic spirituality, diplomacy, and literature. She reveals the fascinating worlds of military usurpers and ascetics, eunuchs and courtesans, and artisans who fashioned the silks, icons, ivories, and mosaics so readily associated with Byzantine art. An innovative history written by one of our foremost scholars, Byzantium reveals this great civilization's rise to military and cultural supremacy, its spectacular destruction by the Fourth Crusade, and its revival and final conquest in 1453.

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History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, plus Gibbon's Memoirs and a Biography - Edward Gibbon Cover Art

History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, plus Gibbon's Memoirs and a Biography

History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, plus Gibbon's Memoirs and a Biography by Edward Gibbon

The complete 6-volume work, which covers from the reign of Marcus Aurelius to the fall of Constantinople in 1453.   Plus "Memoirs of My Life and Writing" by Edward Gibbon, and "Gibbon" by James Cotter Morison. According to Wikipedia: "Edward Gibbon (1737 - 1794) was an English historian and Member of Parliament. His most important work, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, was published in six volumes between 1776 and 1788. The History is known principally for the quality and irony of its prose..."

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Scota, Egyptian Queen of the Scots - Ralph Ellis Cover Art

Scota, Egyptian Queen of the Scots

Scota, Egyptian Queen of the Scots Exiled Egyptian Royals Founded Ireland and Scotland by Ralph Ellis

The legends of Ireland and Scotland tell a fantastic tale of an Egyptian queen and her Greek husband, who were exiled from Egypt to Ireland at some point during the second millennium BC. It is said that it was from this Queen Scota and King Gaythelos that the modern titles for the Scottish and Gaelic people were derived.  What are we to make of this ancient story – is it based more upon fact or fiction? Historians have, as one might expect, taken the story to be complete fiction; but Ralph Ellis has taken a lateral look at this mythology, and found many links and associations that lead to one inescapable conclusion – that the extraordinary tale of Queen Scota and King Gaythelos is probably true. V6.1  Egyptian Exodus Series - part 5.  Please start with: "Jesus, Last of the Pharaohs." Sequel to: "Solomon, Pharaoh of Egypt."

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Egyptian Hieroglyphic Grammar - Gunther Roeder Cover Art

Egyptian Hieroglyphic Grammar

Egyptian Hieroglyphic Grammar A Handbook for Beginners by Gunther Roeder

Written and spoken for about 4,000 years, Egyptian is no longer a living language (Arabic is the major language of modern Egypt); however, ancient Egyptian is still studied by Egyptologists, historians, archaeologists, and students interested in the age-old civilization along the Nile. Typically, students of ancient Egyptian begin with Middle, or Classical, Egyptian, which was written in hieroglyphic script. Middle Egyptian is especially important because it is the language in which many important literary works were written. Moreover, when it was no longer spoken, Middle Egyptian continued to be taught in temples and schools as a vehicle of literary and liturgical expression. This compact handbook, by a noted German Egyptologist, was specially designed for beginning students who wish to acquire enough basic knowledge to enable them to read the easier hieroglyphic texts. Toward that end, the author begins with a general discussion of Middle Egyptian and its script, followed by concise, accessible lessons in phonology, formation and usage of nouns and other parts of speech, and syntax. With careful study, the student should be able, even after the first lesson, to translate simple sentences independently. A list of hieroglyphs, a vocabulary section, and reading exercises complete this handy manual that offers students quick and easy access to the language and culture of ancient Egypt.

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The Roman Emperor Aurelian - John F. White Cover Art

The Roman Emperor Aurelian

The Roman Emperor Aurelian Restorer of the World by John F. White

The leader who helped keep the Dark Ages at bay: “An excellent picture of the Crisis of the Third Century and the life and work of Aurelian ” ( StrategyPage ).   The ancient Sibylline prophecies had foretold that the Roman Empire would last for one thousand years. As the time for the expected dissolution approached in the middle of the third century AD, the empire was lapsing into chaos, with seemingly interminable civil wars over the imperial succession. The western empire had seceded under a rebel emperor, and the eastern empire was controlled by another usurper. Barbarians took advantage of the anarchy to kill and plunder all over the provinces. Yet within the space of just five years, the general, and later emperor, Aurelian had expelled all the barbarians from within the Roman frontiers, reunited the entire empire, and inaugurated major reforms of the currency, pagan religion, and civil administration.   His accomplishments have been hailed by classical scholars as those of a superman, yet Aurelian himself remains little known to a wider audience. His achievements enabled the Roman Empire to survive for another two centuries, ensuring a lasting legacy of Roman civilization for the successor European states. Without Aurelian, the Dark Ages would probably have lasted centuries longer.

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The Ancient Jews from Alexander to Muhammad - Seth Schwartz Cover Art

The Ancient Jews from Alexander to Muhammad

The Ancient Jews from Alexander to Muhammad by Seth Schwartz

This is an accessible and up-to-date account of the Jews during the millennium following Alexander the Great's conquest of the East. Unusually, it acknowledges the problems involved in constructing a narrative from fragmentary yet complex evidence and is, implicitly, an exploration of how this might be accomplished. Moreover, unlike most other introductions to the subject, it concentrates primarily on the people rather than issues of theology and adopts a resolutely unsentimental approach to the subject. Professor Schwartz particularly demonstrates the importance of studying Jewish history, texts and artefacts to the broader community of ancient historians because of what they can contribute to wider themes such as Roman imperialism. The book serves as an excellent introduction for students and scholars of Jewish history and of ancient history.

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Stilicho - Ian Hughes Cover Art

Stilicho

Stilicho The Vandal Who Saved Rome by Ian Hughes

A military history of the campaigns of Stilicho, the army general who became one of the most powerful men in the Western Roman Empire. Flavius Stilicho lived in one of the most turbulent periods in European history. The Western Empire was finally giving way under pressure from external threats, especially from Germanic tribes crossing the Rhine and Danube, as well as from seemingly ever-present internal revolts and rebellions. Ian Hughes explains how a Vandal (actually, Stilicho had a Vandal father and Roman mother) came to be given almost total control of the Western Empire and describes his attempts to save both the Western Empire and Rome itself from the attacks of Alaric the Goth and other barbarian invaders. Stilicho is one of the major figures in the history of the Late Roman Empire, and his actions following the death of the emperor Theodosius the Great in 395 may have helped to divide the Western and Eastern halves of the Roman Empire on a permanent basis. Yet he is also the individual who helped maintain the integrity of the West before the rebellion of Constantine III in Britain, and the crossing of the Rhine by a major force of Vandals, Sueves, and Alans—both in A.D. 406—set the scene for both his downfall and execution in 408, and the later disintegration of the West. Despite his role in this fascinating and crucial period of history, there is no other full-length biography of him in print.

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Delphi Complete Works of Cicero - Cicero Cover Art

Delphi Complete Works of Cicero

Delphi Complete Works of Cicero by Cicero

Cicero's Rome's greatest orator, Marcus Tullius Cicero was a renowned philosopher and political theorist whose influence upon the history of European literature has been immense.  For the first time in digital publishing history, readers can now enjoy Cicero’s complete works in English and Latin on their eReaders, with beautiful illustrations, informative introductions and the usual Delphi bonus material. (Version 1) * Beautifully illustrated with images relating to Cicero's life and works * Features the complete works of Cicero, in both English translation and the original Latin * Concise introductions to the orations, treatises and other works * The complete speeches, with rare fragments, arranged in precise chronological order * Includes many translations previously appearing in Loeb Classical Library editions of Cicero’s works * Excellent formatting of the texts * Easily locate the orations or treatises you want to read with individual contents tables * Includes rare fragments of Cicero's epic poem, first time in digital print * Many rare treatises appearing here for the first time in digital print * Features four biographies – immerse yourself in Cicero's ancient world! * Scholarly ordering of texts into chronological order and literary genres Please visit www.delphiclassics.com to browse through our range of exciting titles CONTENTS: Orations PRO QUINCTIO PRO ROSCIO AMERINO  PRO Q. ROSCIO COMOEDO  PRO TULLIO DIVINATIO IN CAECILIUM IN VERREM  PRO FONTEIO  PRO CAECINA  PRO LEGE MANILIA PRO CLUENTIO IN TOGA CANDIDA PRO RABIRIO PERDUELLIONIS REO  PRO MURENA  IN CATILINAM I-IV  DE LEGE AGRARIA CONTRA RULLUM PRO SULLA  PRO ARCHIA POETA) PRO FLACCO POST REDITUM IN SENATU  POST REDITUM IN QUIRITES  DE HARUSPICUM RESPONSIS  DE DOMO SUA PRO SESTIO PRO CAELIO  PRO BALBO  IN VATINIUM TESTEM  DE PROVINCIIS CONSULARIBUS  IN PISONEM PRO RABIRIO POSTUMO  PRO PLANCIO  PRO MILONE PRO REGE DEIOTARO PRO MARCELLO  PRO LIGARIO PHILIPPICAE  FRAGMENTS OF SPEECHES Rhetorical and Political Treatises DE INVENTIONE (About the Composition of Arguments) DE ORATORE AD QUINTUM FRATREM LIBRI TRES (On the Orator) DE PARTITIONIBUS ORATORIAE (About the Subdivisions of Oratory) DE OPTIMO GENERE ORATORUM (About the Best Kind of Orators) DE RE PUBLICA (On the Republic) BRUTUS (Short History of Orators) ORATOR AD M. BRUTUM (About the Orator) TOPICA (Topics of Argumentation) DE LEGIBUS (On the Laws) Philosophical Treatises PARADOXA STOICORUM (Stoic Paradoxes) ACADEMICA (The Academics) DE FINIBUS BONORUM ET MALORUM (About the Ends of Goods and Evils) TUSCULANAE QUAESTIONES (Tusculum Disputations) DE NATURA DEORUM (On the Nature of the Gods) DE DIVINATIONE (On Divination) DE FATO (On Fate) CATO MAIOR DE SENECTUTE (On Old Age) LAELIUS DE AMICITIA (On Friendship) DE OFFICIIS (On Duties) Letters EPISTULAE AD ATTICUM (Letters to Atticus) EPISTULAE AD QUINTUM FRATREM (Letters to his brother Quintus) EPISTULAE AD BRUTUM (Letters to Brutus) EPISTULAE AD FAMILIARES (Letters to his friends) Poetry DE CONSULATU SUO (On Cicero’s Consulship) Spurious Works RHETORICA AD HERENNIUM (To the Tribune Publius Sulpicius Rufus) COMMENTARIOLUM PETITIONIS (Essay on Running for Consul) The Latin Texts LIST OF LATIN TEXTS The Biographies CICERO by Plutarch LIFE OF CICERO by Anthony Trollope CICERO by W. Lucas Collins ROMAN LIFE IN THE DAYS OF CICERO by Alfred John Church Please visit www.delphiclassics.com to browse through our range of exciting titles

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The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt - Toby Wilkinson Cover Art

The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt

The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt by Toby Wilkinson

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • “Magisterial . . . [A] rich portrait of ancient Egypt’s complex evolution over the course of three millenniums.”— Los Angeles Times   NAMED ONE OF THE BEST BOOKS OF THE YEAR BY The Washington Post • Publishers Weekly   In this landmark volume, one of the world’s most renowned Egyptologists tells the epic story of this great civilization, from its birth as the first nation-state to its absorption into the Roman Empire. Drawing upon forty years of archaeological research, award-winning scholar Toby Wilkinson takes us inside a tribal society with a pre-monetary economy and decadent, divine kings who ruled with all-too-recognizable human emotions. Here are the legendary leaders: Akhenaten, the “heretic king,” who with his wife Nefertiti brought about a revolution with a bold new religion; Tutankhamun, whose dazzling tomb would remain hidden for three millennia; and eleven pharaohs called Ramesses, the last of whom presided over the militarism, lawlessness, and corruption that caused a political and societal decline. Filled with new information and unique interpretations, The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt is a riveting and revelatory work of wild drama, bold spectacle, unforgettable characters, and sweeping history.   “With a literary flair and a sense for a story well told, Mr. Wilkinson offers a highly readable, factually up-to-date account.”— The Wall Street Journal   “[Wilkinson] writes with considerable verve. . . . [He] is nimble at conveying the sumptuous pageantry and cultural sophistication of pharaonic Egypt.”— The New York Times

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Mythology (75th Anniversary Illustrated Edition) - Edith Hamilton & Jim Tierney Cover Art

Mythology (75th Anniversary Illustrated Edition)

Mythology (75th Anniversary Illustrated Edition) Timeless Tales of Gods and Heroes by Edith Hamilton & Jim Tierney

This 75th anniversary edition of a classic bestseller is stunningly illustrated and designed to enchant fans of Greek, Roman, and Norse mythology at all ages. Since its original publication by Little, Brown and Company in 1942, Edith Hamilton's Mythology has sold millions of copies throughout the world and established itself as a perennial bestseller. For more than seven decades readers have chosen this book above all others to discover the enchanting world of mythology -- from Odysseus's adventure-filled journey to the Norse god Odin's effort to postpone the final day of doom. This deluxe, hardcover edition is fully-illustrated throughout with all-new, specially commissioned art, making it a true collector's item.

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The Roman Way - Edith Hamilton Cover Art

The Roman Way

The Roman Way by Edith Hamilton

"No one in modern times has shown us more vividly than Edith Hamilton 'the glory that was Greece and the grandeur that was Rome.'" —New York Times In this now-classic history of Roman civilization, Edith Hamilton vividly depicts Roman life and spirit as they are revealed by the greatest writers of the age. Among these literary guides are Cicero, who left an incomparable collection of letters; Catullus, who was the quintessential poet of love; Horace, who chronicled a cruel and materialistic Rome; and the Romantics: Virgil, Livy, and Seneca. Hamilton concludes her work by contrasting the high-mindedness of Stoicism with the collapse of values as witnessed by the historian Tacitus and the satirist Juvenal.

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The Storm Before the Storm - Mike Duncan Cover Art

The Storm Before the Storm

The Storm Before the Storm The Beginning of the End of the Roman Republic by Mike Duncan

The creator of the award-winning podcast series The History of Rome and Revolutions brings to life the bloody battles, political machinations, and human drama that set the stage for the fall of the Roman Republic. The Roman Republic was one of the most remarkable achievements in the history of civilization. Beginning as a small city-state in central Italy, Rome gradually expanded into a wider world filled with petty tyrants, barbarian chieftains, and despotic kings. Through the centuries, Rome's model of cooperative and participatory government remained remarkably durable and unmatched in the history of the ancient world. In 146 BC, Rome finally emerged as the strongest power in the Mediterranean. But the very success of the Republic proved to be its undoing. The republican system was unable to cope with the vast empire Rome now ruled: rising economic inequality disrupted traditional ways of life, endemic social and ethnic prejudice led to clashes over citizenship and voting rights, and rampant corruption and ruthless ambition sparked violent political clashes that cracked the once indestructible foundations of the Republic. Chronicling the years 146-78 BC, The Storm Before the Storm dives headlong into the first generation to face this treacherous new political environment. Abandoning the ancient principles of their forbearers, men like Marius, Sulla, and the Gracchi brothers set dangerous new precedents that would start the Republic on the road to destruction and provide a stark warning about what can happen to a civilization that has lost its way.